Thyroid Disorder And Its Symptoms and Signs.



Thyroid disease is a common problem that can cause symptoms because of over- or under-function of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is an essential organ for producing thyroid hormones, which maintain our body metabolism. The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck below Adam's apple and the gland is a butterfly-shaped organ. Its job is to take iodine from the blood and combine it with an amino acid to form thyroid hormones.


  The two most important thyroid hormones are thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin) and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which account for 99.9% and 0.1% of thyroid hormones present in the blood respectively. Blood tests to measure TSH, T4, T3 and Free T4 are readily available and widely used.

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

The hypothalamus, located in the brain, produces thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) that tells the pituitary gland to make the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The pituitary gland sends out TSH, which tells the thyroid to produce the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The normal range for an adult is 0.4 – 5.5 mU/mL.

This test may be measured at any time of the day without fasting. The brain regulates the number of thyroid hormones in the blood. When the hormone levels are low, the brain sends a message to send out TSH. This causes the thyroid gland to send out more hormones. If blood levels of thyroid hormone are high, the brain senses this and sends a message to stop producing TSH. TSH is a very good test to check for hypothyroidism. TSH is increased with hypothyroid and decreased with hyperthyroid.


T4 circulates in the blood in two forms. T4 bound to proteins that prevent the T4 from entering the various tissues that need thyroid hormone. Free T4, which does enter the various target tissues to exert its effects. The free T4 fraction is the most important to determine how the thyroid is functioning, and tests to measure this is called the Free T4 (FT4) and the Free T4 Index (FT4I or FTI).

T4 and T4 Free
 Individuals who have hyperthyroidism will have an elevated FT4 or FTI, whereas patients with hypothyroidism will have a low level of FT4 or FTI.The normal range for an adult: 5 – 11 µg/dL. Combining the TSH test with the FT4 or FTI accurately determines how the thyroid gland is functioning.


T3 tests are often useful to diagnosis hyperthyroidism or to determine the severity of the hyperthyroidism. Patients who are hyperthyroid will have an elevated T3 level. In some individuals with a low TSH, only the T3 is elevated and the FT4 or FTI is normal. T3 testing rarely is helpful in the hypothyroid patient, since it is the last test to become abnormal.

T3 and T3 free

 Patients can be severely hypothyroid with a high TSH and low FT4 or FTI but have a normal T3. In some situations, such as during pregnancy or while taking birth control pills, high levels of total T4 and T3 can exist. This is because the estrogens increase the level of the binding proteins. In these situations, it is better to ask both for TSH and free T4 for thyroid evaluation.

Symptoms and Signs

The thyroid gland producing an insufficient amount of thyroid hormone. It can develop problems can include are.
signs and symptoms 

  1. Fatigue
  2. Weakness
  3. Intolerance to cold
  4. Muscle aches and cramps
  5. Constipation
  6. Weight gain or difficulty losing weight
  7. Poor appetite
  8. Goiter (enlarged thyroid gland)
  9. Dry, rough skin
  10. Coarse hair or hair loss
  11. Eye and face swelling
  12. Deeper and/or hoarse voice
  13. Enlarged tongue
  14. Irregular or heavy menstrual periods
  15. Depression
  16. Memory loss
  17. Slowed thinking and mental activity
  18. Increased blood cholesterol levels

 kinds of thyroid disorders that includes are

  • Hypothyroidism This gland produces hormones that regulate your body's energy use, along with many other important functions. Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid is underactive. When thyroid hormone production drops, your body's processes slow down and change. Hypothyroidism can affect many different systems in your body.
  • Hyperthyroidism The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is the autoimmune disorder Graves' disease. In this disorder, the body makes an antibody (a protein produced by the body to protect against a virus or bacteria) called thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) that causes the thyroid gland to make too much thyroid hormone.

Thyroid issues

  • Goiter Although a lack of dietary iodine is the main cause of goiters in many parts of the world, this is not often the case in countries where iodine is routinely added to table salt and other foods. Graves' disease. A goiter can sometimes occur when your thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism).

  • Thyroid Nodules Multinodular goiter. "Goiter" is a term used to describe any enlargement of the thyroid gland, which can be caused by iodine deficiency or a thyroid disorder. A multinodular goiter contains multiple distinct nodules within the goiter, but its cause is less clear. Thyroid cancer.

  • Thyroid cancer There are four major types of thyroid cancer is papillary, follicular, medullary (MTC), and anaplastic. The cause of thyroid cancer is unknown, but certain risk factors have been identified and include a family history of goiter, exposure to high levels of radiation, and certain hereditary syndromes.


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